BLAD Active Ingredient

BLAD is a naturally-occurring 20 kDa polypeptide formed during the germination process of sweet lupines (Lupinus albus) and is water-extracted from the germinated seeds.

BLAD is a naturally-occurring protein formed during the germination process of sweet Lupines (Lupinus albus).

BLAD’s fungicide activity results from a combined action at several targets in the fungal cell. BLAD is able to bind to fungal chitin structures, disturbing the cell wall and cell membrane, and enters into the fungus cell. Inside the cell induces major changes in cell metabolism from which the most important is the disturbance of the cell metal homeostasis due to its chelating activity on divalent cations.

By depleting the fungal cells in divalent cations, BLAD is able to block several metabolic pathways, as these cations are essential co-factors for many enzymes that will be inactivated in their absence. By affecting different metabolic reactions, it targets different metabolic pathways, resulting in a multi-site mode of action. An oxidative stress is the generated inside the cells leading to an apoptotic fungal cell death.

BLAD’s multi-site targets the cell well, cell membrane and cell metabolism.

With this multi-site mode of action, it is unlikely to develop pests resistance.

This highly complex and multitarget mechanism of action has been corroborated by its new category, M12, of the 2016 issue of the FRAC Code List©. In February 2017, the FRAC Committee has introduced a new category and code for biological fungicides and multiple modes of action (BM). BLAD moved from the previous group M12 to the new group BM 01.

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